(by Joshua Bloch, (publisher info))

Chapter 2: Creating and Destroying Objects

Item 1: Consider static factories instead of constructors

Item 2: Consider a builder when faced with many constructor parameters

Item 3: Enforce the singleton property with a private constructor or an enum type

Item 4: Enforce non-instantiability with a private constructor

Item 5: Avoid creating unnecessary objects

Item 6: Eliminate obsolete object references

Item 7: Avoid finalizers

Chapter 3: Methods Common to All Objects

Item 8: Obey the general contract when overriding equals

Item 9: Always override hashCode when you override equals

Item 10: Always override toString

Item 12: Consider implementing Comparable

Chapter 4: Classes and Interfaces

Item 13: Minimize the accessibility of classes and members

Item 14: In public classes, use accessor methods, not public fields

Item 15: Minimize mutability

Item 16: Favor composition over inheritance

Item 17: Design and document for inheritance, or else prohibit it

Item 18: Prefer interfaces to abstract classes

Item 19: Use interfaces only to define types

Item 21: Use function objects to represent strategies

Item 22: Favor static member classes over nonstatic

Chapter 5: Generics

Item 23: Don't use raw types in new code

Item 24: Eliminate unchecked warnings

Item 25: Prefer lists to arrays

Item 27: Favor generic methods

Item 28: Use bounded wildcards to improve API flexibility

Item 29: Consider typesafe heterogeneous containers

Chapter 6: Enums and Annotations

Item 30: Use enum instead of int constants

Item 32: Use EnumSet instead of bit fields

Item 33: Use EnumMap instead of ordinal indexing

Item 34: Emulate extensible enums with interfaces

Item 35: Prefer annotations to naming patterns

Item 36: Consistently use the Override annotation

Item 37: Use marker interfaces to define types

Chapter 7: Methods

Item 38: Check parameters for validity

Item 39: Make defensive copies when needed

Item 40: Design method signatures carefully

Item 41: Use overloading judiciously

Item 42: Use varargs judiciously

Item 43: Return empty arrays or collections, not nulls

Item 44: Write doc comments for all exposed API elements

Chapter 8: General Programming

Item 45: Minimize the scope of local variables

Item 46: Prefer for-each loops to traditional for loops

Item 47: Know and use the libraries

Item 48: Avoid float and double if exact answers are required

Item 49: Prefer primitive types to boxed primitives

Item 50: Avoid strings where other types are appropriate

Item 51: Beware the performance of string concatenation

Item 52: Refer to objects by their interfaces

Item 53: Prefer interfaces to reflection

Item 55: Optimize judiciously

Item 56: Adhere to generally accepted naming conventions

Chapter 9: Exceptions

Item 57: Use exceptions for exceptional conditions

Item 58: Use checked exceptions for recoverable conditions and runtime exceptions for programming errors

Item 59: Avoid unnecessary use of checked exceptions

Item 60: Favor the use of standard exceptions

Item 61: Throw exceptions appropriate to the abstraction

Item 62: Document all exceptions thrown by each method

Item 63: Include failure-capture information in detail messages

Item 64: Strive for failure atomicity

Chapter 10: Concurrency

Item 66: Synchronize access to shared mutable data

Item 67: Avoid excessive synchronization

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Last modified 01 February 2022