(by Brett Slatkin, Addison-Wesley)

Pythonic Thinking

Item 1. Know Which Version of Python You’re Using

Item 2. Follow the PEP 8 Style Guide   

Item 3. Know the Differences Between bytes and str

Item 4. Prefer Interpolated F-Strings Over C-style Format Strings and str.format

Item 5. Write Helper Functions Instead of Complex Expressions

Item 6. Prefer Multiple Assignment Unpacking Over Indexing

Item 7. Prefer enumerate Over range

Item 8. Use zip to Process Iterators in Parallel   

Item 9. Avoid else Blocks After for and `while`` Loops

Item 10. Prevent Repetition with Assignment Expressions

Lists and Dictionaries

Item 11: Know How to Slice Sequences

Item 12: Avoid Striding and Slicing in a Single Expression

Item 13: Prefer Catch-All Unpacking Over Slicing

Item 14: Sort by Complex Criteria Using the key Parameter

Item 15: Be Cautious When Relying on dict Insertion Ordering

Item 16: Prefer get Over in and KeyError to Handle Missing Dictionary Keys

Item 17: Prefer defaultdict Over setdefault to Handle Missing Items in Internal State

Item 18: Know How to Construct Key-Dependent Default Values with __missing__


Item 19: Never Unpack More Than Three Variables When Functions Return Multiple Values

Item 20: Prefer Raising Exceptions to Returning None

Item 21: Know How Closures Interact with Variable Scope

Item 22: Reduce Visual Noise with Variable Positional Arguments

Item 23: Provide Optional Behavior with Keyword Arguments

Item 24: Use None and Docstrings to Specify Dynamic Default Arguments

Item 25: Enforce Clarity with Keyword-Only and Positional-Only Arguments

Item 26: Define Function Decorators with functools.wraps

Comprehensions and Generators

Item 27: Use Comprehensions Instead of map and filter

Item 28: Avoid More Than Two Control Subexpressions in Comprehensions

Item 29: Avoid Repeated Work in Comprehensions by Using Assignment Expressions

Item 30: Consider Generators Instead of Returning Lists

Item 31: Be Defensive When Iterating Over Arguments

Item 32: Consider Generator Expressions for Large List Comprehensions

Item 33: Compose Multiple Generators with yield from

Item 34: Avoid Injecting Data into Generators with send

Item 35: Avoid Causing State Transitions in Generators with throw

Item 36: Consider itertools for Working with Iterators and Generators

Classes and Interfaces

Item 37: Compose Classes Instead of Nesting Many Levels of Built-in Types

Item 38: Accept Functions Instead of Classes for Simple Interfaces

Item 39: Use @classmethod Polymorphism to Construct Objects Generically

Item 40: Initialize Parent Classes with super

Item 41: Consider Composing Functionality with Mix-in Classes

Item 42: Prefer Public Attributes Over Private Ones

Item 43: Inherit from collections.abc for Custom Container Types

Metaclasses and Attributes

Item 44: Use Plain Attributes Instead of Setter and Getter Methods

Item 45: Consider @property Instead of Refactoring Attributes

Item 46: Use Descriptors for Reusable @property Methods

Item 47: Use __getattr__, __getattribute__, and __setattr__ for Lazy Attributes

Item 48: Validate Subclasses with __init_subclass__

Item 49: Register Class Existence with __init_subclass__

Item 50: Annotate Class Attributes with __set_name__

Item 51: Prefer Class Decorators Over Metaclasses for Composable Class Extensions

Concurrency and Parallelism

Item 52: Use subprocess to Manage Child Processes

Item 53: Use Threads for Blocking I/O, Avoid for Parallelism

Item 54: Use Lock to Prevent Data Races in Threads

Item 55: Use Queue to Coordinate Work Between Threads

Item 56: Know How to Recognize When Concurrency Is Necessary

Item 57: Avoid Creating New Thread Instances for On-demand Fan-out

Item 58: Understand How Using Queue for Concurrency Requires Refactoring

Item 59: Consider ThreadPoolExecutor When Threads Are Necessary for Concurrency

Item 60: Achieve Highly Concurrent I/O with Coroutines

Item 61: Know How to Port Threaded I/O to asyncio

Item 62: Mix Threads and Coroutines to Ease the Transition to asyncio

Item 63: Avoid Blocking the asyncio Event Loop to Maximize Responsiveness

Item 64: Consider concurrent.futures for True Parallelism

Robustness and Performance

Item 65: Take Advantage of Each Block in try/except/else/finally

Item 66: Consider contextlib and with Statements for Reusable try/finally Behavior

Item 67: Use datetime Instead of time for Local Clocks

Item 68: Make pickle Reliable with copyreg

Item 69: Use decimal When Precision Is Paramount

Item 70: Profile Before Optimizing

Item 71: Prefer deque for Producer–Consumer Queues

Item 72: Consider Searching Sorted Sequences with bisect

Item 73: Know How to Use heapq for Priority Queues

Item 74: Consider memoryview and bytearray for Zero-Copy Interactions with bytes

Testing and Debugging

Item 75: Use repr Strings for Debugging Output

Item 76: Verify Related Behaviors in TestCase Subclasses

Item 77: Isolate Tests from Each Other with setUp, tearDown, setUpModule, and tearDownModule

Item 78: Use Mocks to Test Code with Complex Dependencies

Item 79: Encapsulate Dependencies to Facilitate Mocking and Testing

Item 80: Consider Interactive Debugging with pdb

Item 81: Use tracemalloc to Understand Memory Usage and Leaks


Item 82: Know Where to Find Community-Built Modules

Item 83: Use Virtual Environments for Isolated and Reproducible Dependencies

Item 84: Write Docstrings for Every Function, Class, and Module

Item 85: Use Packages to Organize Modules and Provide Stable APIs

Item 86: Consider Module-Scoped Code to Configure Deployment Environments

Item 87: Define a Root Exception to Insulate Callers from APIs

Item 88: Know How to Break Circular Dependencies

Item 89: Consider warnings to Refactor and Migrate Usage

Item 90: Consider Static Analysis via typing to Obviate Bugs

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Last modified 26 November 2020